General Education

Burris, M. A. (1991). Chinese medical schooling: global science, local schools. China education: problems, policies, and prospects. I. Epstein. New York & London, Garland publishing,INC: 32.

Traditional legacies: families, states and the confucian door

Medical knowledge: science and exchange

Pre-revolutionary legacies(1949)

Post-revolutionary compromises

Chambers, D. I. (1984). Adult education in urban industrial China: problems, policies, and prospects. Contemporary Chinese Educaition. R. Hayhoe. London & Sydney, Croom Helm: 27.

Adult education occupies a prominent position in educational history, and particularly in those education programs conducted under Chinese Communist Party supervision. Investment in adult education appeared to offer more immediate returns.

Chen, T. H.-e. (1981). Chinese Education since 1949: Academic and revolutionary Models. New York, Oxford, Toronto, Sydney, Paris, Frankfurt, Peramon Press.

An attempt is made in this book to examine the vicissitudes fo contemporary Chinese education from the standpoint of shifts and swings between two contrasting models of education. The models refer to the pattern of schooling and learning as it reflects the nature of education, its aims and processes, and the functions of the school in the entire system of education. To get an overall view of the three decades of development, one may examine the changes form the standpoint of shifts in the political-ideological line that determines the aims and objectives of education at different periods of time.

Colletta, J. W. a. N. (1991). Chinese adult education in transition. Chinese Education: Problems, policies and prospects. I. Epstein. New york & London, Garland Publishing, INC: 18.

Historical overview of adult education (1949-1981) current adult education programs: Combatting adult illiteracy Solicitation of mass support for finances Implementation of official policies that encourage further study Making teaching material more practical using flexible and varied teaching methods universalizing primary education Adult higher education: Radio/ television Universities correspondence and evening classes worker's colleges Independent study through examination committee Challenges: create new programs, discover new sources and funding.

Davin, D. (1991). The early childhood education of the only child generation in urban China. Chinese Education: problems, Policies and Prospects. I. Epstein. New York & London, Garland Publishing,INC: 24.

The one child gamily policy in urban China: broadly hold good because of the housing shortage, eight hours and six working days.

The socialization of Chinese children in historical perspective: obedience, duty, hard working and filial piety. communist: hard working, duty, and a willingness to serve the people.

Socialization in the post-Mao family

Kindergarten education: not offered on a univeral basis. Elite kindergartens are operated by the local education bureaus.

The socialization of the only child at primary school: At age six or seven children move to the primary school and remain for six years.

Children socialization and moral panic in post-Mao China.

Du, R. (1992). Chinese Higher Education: A decade of reform and development(1978-1988). New York, ST. Martin's Press.

The reform and development of Chinese higher education during the important decade attracted the attention of scholars in many parts of the world. Acurrent, conprehensive study was, therefore, needed to review and report the major efforts of the reform and development of Chinese higher education during the decade. It is hoped that the findings of this study would be useful in planning for the immediate and the long-range future of Chinese higher education and in promoting the understanding of contemporary Chinese higher education by scholars in the rest of the world.

Epstein, I. (1991). Educating China's disadvantaged youth: A case of modernization and its discontents. China education: problems, policies, and prospects. New York & London, Garland publishing, INC: 21.

The juvenile delinquency case.

The special education case.

From acomparative perspective, the social attitudes that the Chinese express toward disadvantaged youth today are typical of those voiced in other parts of the developing world.

Enhanced institutionalization would necessarily promote the social integration of China's disadvantaged youth.

Francis, C.-B. (1991). The institutional roots of student political culture: official student politicals at Beijing University. China education: problems, policies, and prospects. I. Epstein. New York &London, Garland publishing, INC: 22.

The structure of student government.

The structure of the student congress, the executive committee, the student committee. Reproduction of structure.

The dynamics of student government

Hayhoe, R. (1984). Chinese-western scholarly exchange: implications for the future of Chinese education. Contemporary Chinese Education. R. Hayhoe. London & Sydney, Croom Helm: 25.

The author examined the aims and policies of the Chinese scholarly exchange approach, the bodies through which exchange relations are administered, financial arrangements, structure, and curricular priorities. Then the aims and policies of select western countries.

Hayhoe, R. (1984). The evolution of modern Chinese educational institutions. Contemporaty Chinese Education. R. Hayhoe. London & Sydney, Croom Helm: 21.

Two paramount issues have faced Chinese educators in this century: the need for a new Chinese ideology which could support modern educational institutions, and the difficulty of adaption attractive features of western educational patterns to the Chinese context. In this section each of these educational experiments will be depicted in a few bold contrastive lines in order to provide a framework for reflection on the options available to Chinese policy makers today, and the contraints within which they operate, as they turn form the xenophobia of the Cultural Revolution and attempt once again to implement Mao's guideline of letting foreign things serve China.

Hayhoe, R. (1991). The tapestry of Chinese higher education. Chinese education: problems, policies, and prospects. I. Epstein. new York & London, Garland Publishing, INC: 36.

The political-economic context of higher education reform.

The policy context: the reform document of 1985

The structure of the formal higher education system: ( traditional three levels are different from mordern. The latter one was standardized under nationalist legislation : mnational institutions, provincial institutions, and city institutions.

Curricular patterns in higher education

Entry examinations, job assignment and student life under commodity socialism.

The open door and Chinese higher education.

Henze, J. (1984). Higher Education: the tension between quality and equlity. Contemporary Chinese Education. R. Hayhoe. London & Sydney, Croom Helm: 61.

Quality and equality considered as essential elements for a descriptive-analytical study of Chinese higher education. It highlights the history of Chinese higher education has been largely determined by dissent between political elites favoring quality education in order to achieve a maximum socio-economic efficiency, or those who were more in favor of the equality.

Holmes, B. (1984). A comparativist's view of Chinese education. Contemporary Chinese Education. R. Hayhoe. London & Sydney, Croom Helm: 19.

For a comparative educationist modern China has a particular fascination, because while the problems its government has faced since 1949 have not been dissimilar to those faced by governments elsewhere throughout the world, policy solutions in China have been based on a borrowed ideology, many features of which are antithetical to traditional beliefs. The strength and persistence of these beliefs and the uniqueness of Chinese conditions ensure the invaluable information of this book, and also as a case study. The author place educational developments in China in a comparative framework and suggest that they represent the outcome of unique responses to world wide problems.

Holmes, B. (1984). A comparativist's view of Chinese education. Contemporary Chinese Education. R. Hayboe, Billing & Sons Limited, Worcester: 19.

Hom, S. K. (1991). Beyond " stuffing the goose": the challenge of modernization and reform for law and legal education in the People's Republic of China. China education: problems, policies, and prospects. I. Epstein. New York & London, GarlandPublishing,INC: 29.

The role of law in China. the role of legal education in China's legal system: overview of chinese legal education, role of formal legal education and nethodology.

"stuffing the goose" in a modern but Chinese way.

Prospects for the future.

Hooper, B. (1991). Gerder and education. China education: problems, policies, and prospects. I. Epstein. New York & London, Garland publishing,INC: 23.

Gender is an important variable in education in both capitalist and socialist countries, whether developing or industrialized. The issue of gender and education is significant in China.

Obstacles to female access to education.

Institutional discrimination

Family deterrents , female aspirations, reactions of official, academic and feminist

John N, H. a. B. K. (1991). Special economic zones and education in China: bold reform or timid experiment? Chinese education: problems, policies and prospects. I. Epstein. New York & London, Garland Publishing, Inc.: 24.

Evolution and development of SEZ.

SEZ education policies and prospects.

Case study: Shenzhen speical economic zone.

Jurgen Henze, H. S. (1992). The formal and nonformal systems of education. Education and Modernization: the Chinese Experience. R. Hayhoe. Oxford, New York, Seoul, Tokyo, Pergamon Press: 80.

The formal education system and modernization: An analysis of developments since 1978.

Nonformal education and modernization.

Kwong, J. (1979). Chinese Education in Transition, John Deyell Company.

This book tries to bring together a paradigm developed in the social sciences and the data on China. However, the theoretical framework used here is not a direct transplantation. The theoretical framework is a synthesis of the marxist paradigm with the analysis of Chinese reality. A second goal of this book is to supplement the time gap in the literature hence its focus on the pre-cultural Revolution period, particularly the years from the Great Leap Forward to the eve of the cultural Revolution.

Latham, R. J. (1991). Military education and technical training in China. China education: problems, policies, and prospects. I. Epstein. New York &London, Garland publishing, INC: 38.

basic structure and scope of military education and technical training in China's People's Liberation Army (PLA).

The extent to which military education results in a positive spillover effect for domestic economic development and socialization.

Geniric aspects of military training and education.

Military demographics and education.


Volunteers: beyond conscription

A large officer corps.

The PLA's military education structure.

The national defense University.

Higher education and reentry education

Dual-purpose personnel

Military training at civilian institutions

Active socialization: the defense eduation campaign.

Lo, B. L. C. (1984). Primary education: A two track system for dual tasks. Contemporary Chinese Education. R. Hayhoe. London & Sydney, Croom Helm: 18.

Post-1977 Chinese educational policies show clearly the authorities' intention to develop primary education on a two track basis with urban academicschools on one hand and rural work-study schools on the other. This is not a innovation but a return to an ancient tradition.

Lo, B. L. C. (1984). Teacher education in the eighties. Contemporary Chinese education. R. Hayhoe. London & Sydney, Croom Helm: 24.

The education of teachers is of crucial importance. Many other aspects of Chinese education have been affected by the shift of educational policy which emphasises quality. In Deng Xiaoping's word: teachers hold the key to the success of a school in training qualified personnel for the proletariat.

Lynn Paine, R. P., Heidi Ross, Stanley Rosen, Irving Epstein, Gerard A. Postiglione, Jeremy Paltiel (1992). Issues and groups in education and modernization. Education and modernization. R. Hayhoe. Oxford, New York, Seoul, Tokyo, Pergamon Press: 176.

Teaching and Modernization in contemporary China.

Moral-Political education and modernization.

Foreign language education as a barometer of modernization

Women, Education and modernization.

Special education issues in China's modernization.

The implications of modernization for the education of China's national minorities.

Eucating the modernizers: management training in China.

Paine, L. (1991). Reforming teachers: the organization, reproduction, and transformation of teaching. China education: problems, policies, and prospects. I. Epstein. New York & London, Garland publishing, INC: 38.

The attempts to reform teachers and teaching in China are connected to a global process of educational rationalization and specialization as well as to China's own education, economic, and social developments.

The transformation of teachers.

The legacy of history.

The social construction of teachers: individual entry. Institutional mediation. Transition to teaching. The transformation of teaching.

Regulating quality: recruiting strong teachers. strengthening the curriculum. Establish standards for teaching in schools

Allocate benefits. social work in the post-Mao era.

Improve teacher's political status.

Distribute economic benefits

Pepper, S. (1990). China's education reform in the 1980s: policies, issues, and historical perspectives. Berkeley, The regents of the Unversity of California.

The two-line struggle in Chinese education: origins and development (the antiestablishment backlash of the 1920, the Yan'an decade, reinforcements from the Soviet Union.

Education reform in the 1980s : two lines become one ( regularization in the name of reform, elementary schooling, secondary schooling, higher education.

China's search for ideal models must continue even as the most recent precedents sought in the example of international communism disintegrate.

Pepper, S. (1991). Post-Mao Reforms in Chinese Education: Can The Ghosts of the Past be Laid to Rest? Chinese Education: problems, Policies, and Prospects. I. Epstein. New York & London.

Rosen, S. (1984). New directions in secondary educaion. Contemporary Chinese Education. R. Hayhoe. London & Sydney, Croom Helm: 28.

Secondary schools should train both qualified students for institutes of higher learning and good laborers for society. In practice, the desirability of a university degree and the small numbers pernitted to enter university have made the contest mobility function of secondary schools of overriding importance both before and after the Cultural Revolution.

Rosen, S. (1991). Political education and student response: some background factors behind the 1989 student demonstrations. China education: problems, policies, and prospects. I. Epstein. New York & London, Garland publishing,INC: 33.

The crisis in moral and political education.

Party-sponsored surveys on student attitudes: university students in Shanghai.

Students and political workers in Beijing in the aftermath of the 1986 1987 demonstrations

Ross, H. (1991). The "crisis" in Chinese secondary schooling. Chinese Education: problems, Policies, and prospects. New York & London, Garland Publishing,Inc: 43.

A reevaluation of crisis for the 1990s

Three major problems for secondary education : financial insecurity, shortages of qualified, motivated teachers, no educational successors.

Educators will continue to negotiate between symbols of ideological rectitude and the pressures to develop a pedagogy appropriate to an era of the open door. Some schools and their teachers became both scapegoats and solution for China's cultural crisis.

Su, Z. (1991). An organizational analysis of certral education administration in China. China education: problems, policies, and prospects. I. Epstein. New York& London, Garland publishing, INC: 19.

History and organization.

Administrative tools, function and dysfunction.

similarities and differences of establishment of the SEC

Prospects for the future.

Zhu Weizheng, A. W., Ruth Hayhoe, Chan Hoiman (1992). Historical perspectives on Education and Modernization. Education and Modernization: the Chinese experience. R. Hayhoe. Oxford, New York, Seoul, Tokyo, Pergamon Press: 100.

Confucius and traditional Chinese education: an assessment.

Real and imagined continuities in the Chinese struggle for literacy.

Cultural tradition and educational moderniztion: lessons from the Republican Era.

Modernity and revolution in Chinese education: towards an analytical agenda of the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution

General Education Private Education

Private Education

Bi, C. (1997). Exploring the practice and theory of Chinese private education. Chinese Education and Society 30, No. 1, 23-27.

Cheng, H (1997). Shopping seats in a school market. Online Proceedings of 1997 Midwest Comparative and International Education Society Conference, Urbana: UIUC, 1997.

Cheng, K. M. (1993). Zhongguo dalu jiaoyu shikuang [The true situation of Chinese education in mainland China]. Taipei, Taiwan: Taiwan Commercial Press.

Deng, P. (1997). Private education in modern China. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

Drawing on an abundance of primary sources aswell as on the author's extensive personal experience in the Chinese school sytem, this book examines the evolution of non-governmental schools in China between 1895 and 1995.

Gao, H. Y. (1997). A random discussion of the protection of the lawful rights of people serviced by private schools. Chinese Education and Society 30, No. 1, 59-62.

Epstein, I. (1991), Chinese education: Problems, policies and prospects. New York: Garland Publishing Inc.

Hu, Yan (1994). Private Schools in Modern China. In Z. Zhang (Ed.), The Theory and Practice of Private andNon-governmental Schools Beijing: China Worker's Publishing House.

Hayhoe, R. (1992). Education and Modernization: The Chinese Experience. New York: Pergamon Press.

K. M. Cheng (1994). Issues in decentralization: what the reform in China tells. Educational Research, 8, 794-828.

Kwong, J. (1997). The reemergence of private schools in socialist China. Comparative Education Review, 8, 244-259.

Lai, J. H. (1996). The concept of private schools and their proper appellation. Chinese Education and Society, Vol. 29, No. 5.

Lin, Jing (1999) Social Transformation and Private Education in China. Westport, CT Praeger Publishers

Private schools resurfaced in China after 1978 when the Chinese government embarkedon an economic reform for modernization. This bookoffers comprehensive review of the development, characteristics, issues, and problems of these private schools and examines the economic, social and educational context for private school devlopment. It also analyzes the characteristics of various types of private schools, and critically discusses issues and problems facing them.

Levin, H. M. (1987). Education as a Public and Private Good. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 628-641.

Lewin, K., Little, A., Xu, H., and Zheng, J. (1994). Educational innovation in China: Tracing the impact of the 1985 reforms. England: Longman.

Mok, K. (1997). Private challenges to public dominance: The resurgence of private education in the Pearl River Delta. Comparative Education, 33, 43-60.

Mok. K. (1997). Privatization or marketization: Educational development in post-Mao China. International Review of Education, 43, Nos. 5-6, 547-567.

Paine, L. (1991). Reforming Teachers. In Iving Epstein (Ed.), Chinese education: Problems, policies and prospects (pp. 238-243). New York: Garland.

Pepper, S. (1990). China's education reform in the 1980s: Policies, issues, and historical perspectives. Berkley, University of California at Berkley: Institute of East Asian Studies.

Pepper, S. (1996). Radicalism and education reform in 20th century China: The search for an ideal development model. London: Cambridge University Press.

Qu, Yangdong (1999). Guan Che Tiao Li, Wan Shan Fa Gui, Gui Fan Ban Xue [Implementing the Regulation, Perfecting the Rule of Law and Regulating the Operation of Schools]. Min Ban Jiao Yu Dong Tai [Current Information of Minban Education]

Robinson, J. (1986). Decentralization, money and the case of people-run schools in people's China. Comparative Education Review, 30, 189-201.

Robinson, J. (1991). Minban schools in DengÕs Era. In Iving Epstein (Ed.), Chinese education: Problems, policies and prospects (pp. 163-171). New York: Garland.

history overview of the history of Minban schools.

Minban schools in the late 1980s.

Sautman, B. (1995). Politicization, hyperpolitization and Depoliticization of Chinese education. Comparative Education Review, 669-689.

Tsang, M. (1994). Costs of education in China: Issues of resources mobilization, equality, equity and efficiency. Education Economics, Vol. 2, No. 3.

Wang, D. H. (1997). Minban zhongxiao xue: wenti yu duice (Private elementary and secondary schools: Problems and solutions). Renmin Jiaoyu (People's Education), 5, 12-14.

Wang, Z. L. (1996). The analysis of communist China's universalization of 9-year compulsory education. Studies of Communist Problems, 8, 34-35.

Wei, Y. & Zhang, G. (1995). A historical prospective on non-governmental higher education in China. Paper presented at the International Conference of Private Higher Education in Asia and the Pacific Region, November.

Wu, Z. K. (1996). Overview of current Chinese private school development. China education and society, 2, 1995.

Xi, L. (1996). To whom are the school door open? China education and society, 5, 1995.

Xu G. Y. (1997). Exploring certain theoretical issues in regard to private schools. China education and society, 30. No. 1, 41-51.

Zhang, D. C. (1997). Brief Introduction to China Private Higher Education Institutions. Beijing: China Agricultural Science and Technology Press.

Zou, J. (1997). Private Schooling in China: Assumptions, Complications, and Implications. Online Proceedings of 1996 Midwest Comparative and International Education Society Conference, Urbana: UIUC, 199