A Toad Moaned and Groaned


Read and write words with the –oa vowel combination.

Lesson Plan

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Target Words:

  • toad
  • road
  • moan
  • groan
  • soak


  • Road and toad graphics (see below)
  • Pictures of words spelled with oa to be a load (see below)
  • A Toad with a Load target text (see below)
  • A Toad Moaned and Groaned target text (see below)
  • Word blending cards (see below)

State and model the objective

Tell the children that they will help a toad with a load get off a road while they read and write words with the –oa vowel combination: toad, road, load, moan, groan, croak, cloak.


Practice the skill within an activity

  • Help a toad with a load
    • Place the toad graphic on the road graphic (see below).
    • Let the children place pictures (see below) on the toad to represent a big load.
    • Pretend to have the toad:
      • moan and groan about his big load
      • get help from friends to carry the big load
      • boast about having the best friends
      • loan his friends a toy boat to float to thank them
      • hang up the coat and cloak
      • soak in the bath with his soap
      • use his throat to croak
    • Help the children make a list of words representing other things spelled with the –oa vowel combination that might make a big load (e.g., goat, oak, moat, oat, coach, goal, coal, toast).


Apply the skill

  • Phonological Awareness
    • Word Building:
      • With word blending cards (see below), have the children make new words by changing the vowel or either of the consonants:
        • toad --> road; boat --> goat; boast --> coast; coal --> goal
        • oaf --> oak; loan --> load; soap --> soak; coat --> coach
  • Read target words in texts (see below)
    • Engage the children in reading the target text A Toad with a Load as a class/group.
    • Read the text again fading support.
    • Have the children make a list of the words with the oa vowel combination as you read the text together.
    • Repeat the activity with the targt text A Toad Moaned and Groaned.
  • Write about the activity using target words/patterns
    • Give each child a paper and pencil and let them write about the toad. Have them include some these words: toad, road, moan, groan, cloak, coat, boat, soap, soak, float, croak, boast.



SEEL Target Texts

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A Toad Moaned and Groaned

There once was a toad with a great big load.
He carried a coat, a cloak, a toy boat, and some soap.
The toad moaned and groaned about his big load.
He hoped to get home to float his toy boat or soak in the bath with nice soap.
Along came a friend who saw the toad with his big load.
The friend helped the toad to carry the load.
The toad croaked, “Thanks!” using his throat.
From that day on, the toad boasted about having the best friend from coast to coast.

A Toad with a Load

One day I saw a great big toad,
Hopping down a rocky road.
He carried a very heavy load.
I stopped that tired, hopping toad,
And took him to the railroad.
He climbed aboard, unpacked his load,
And was a very happy toad.



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1. CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.1.3.B: Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words.
2. CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.1.3.C: Know final -e and common vowel team conventions for representing long vowel sounds.