Tap and Rap on a Drum


Blend a beginning consonant or consonant blend with -ap to make words such as rap, tap, snap, and flap.

Lesson Plan

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Target Words:

  • rap
  • tap
  • snap
  • flap
  • slap


  • Drums or containers to use as drums
  • Drumsticks or pencils
  • Word cards (see below)
  • Tap, Slap, Flap target text (see below)
  • Letter cards (see below)

State and model the objective 
Tell the children they will tap on drums and clap to make music while they add sounds to the -ap ending to make words such as tap, rap, clap, snap and flap.

Practice the skill within an activity

Tap and rap on a drum

  • Have a child tap and rap on a drum (or use a container as a drum) with a drumstick (or pencil).
  • Let the other children snap and clap to the rhythm of the beat of the drum. 
  • Allow the children to take turns tapping and rapping on the drum or snapping and clapping to make music.
  • Have the children take apart words by tapping on the drum once for each sound in the following words: cap, lap, map, nap, rap, sap, tap, zap, snap.

Tap word cards

  • Read the target text Tap, Slap, Flap (see below) with the children.
  • Spread out the word cards (see below) and read the text again, allowing the children to use the cards to act out the text. 

Blend target words

  • Mix up the word cards (see below), then draw the words one at a time and say the individual sounds of the word. 
  • Have the children guess the word on the card by blending the sounds together.

Apply the skill (choose from the following)

Identify, blend and manipulate sounds

  • Have children blend individual sounds into words by tapping their shoulder (beginning sound), their elbow (middle sound) and fingers (ending sound) then have them clap to say the whole word (e.g. /y/ tap shoulder, /a/ tap elbow, /p/ tap fingers = yap clap hands).
    • /t/ /a/ /p/ = tap
    • /l/ /a/ /p/ = lap
    • /n/ /a/ /p/ = nap
  • With letter cards (see below), have the children make new words by changing the vowel or either of the consonants:
    • Change the beginning sound: cap → map; map → rap; rap → tap
    • Change the ending sound: cap → cat; map → man; rap → rat; tap → tan
    • Change the middle sound: cap → cup; map → mop; rap → rip; tap → top

SEEL Target Texts

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Tap, Slap, Flap

Tap the word "map."
Tap the word "lap."
Slap the word "strap."
Slap the word "nap."
Flap the word "zap."
Flap the word "yap."



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CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.K.3.D: Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the letters that differ.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.K.2.C: Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words.