tap and rap on a drum

Tap and Rap on a Drum

Tap and Rap on a Drum
Target text


Blend a beginning consonant or consonant blend with -ap to make words such as rap, tap, snap, and flap.

See Standards

Lesson Plan

Target Words:

  • rap
  • tap
  • snap
  • flap
  • slap


  • Drums or containers to use as drums
  • Drumsticks or pencils
  • Word cards 
  • -ap and consonant letter cards
  • Letter cards
  • Tap, Slap, Flap target text  

The children will tap on drums and clap to make music as they add sounds to the -ap ending to make words such as tap, rap, clap, snap and flap.

Literacy Activities

Tap and rap on a drum

  • Have a child tap and rap on a drum (or use a container as a drum) with a drumstick (or pencil).
  • Let the other children snap and clap to the rhythm of the beat of the drum. 
  • Allow the children to take turns tapping and rapping on the drum or snapping and clapping to make music.
  • Have the children take apart words by tapping on the drum once for each sound in the following words: cap, lap, map, nap, rap, sap, tap, zap, snap.

Tap word cards

  • Read the Tap, Slap, Flap target text with the children.
  • Spread out the word cards and read the text again, allowing the children to use the cards to act out the text. 

Blend target words

  • Mix up the word cards, then draw the words one at a time and say the individual sounds of the word. 
  • Have the children guess the word on the card by blending the sounds together.

More Practice

Identify, blend and manipulate sounds

  • Have half of the children tape -ap cards on their shirts and half of the children tape consonant cards (e.g., t).
  • Let the children walk around the classroom to find their pair and create a word (t + -ap = tap). 
  • When all the children have found a pair, have each pair explain how they made their word by having the child with the consonant card pronounce their letter and the child with the -ap pronounce their ending.
  • Then have both children say their full word. 
  • Repeat the activity.

Create new words

  • With letter cards, have the children make new words by changing the vowel or either of the consonants:
    • Change the beginning sound: cap → map; map → rap; rap → tap
    • Change the ending sound: cap → cat; map → man; rap → rat; tap → tan
    • Change the middle sound: cap → cup; map → mop; rap → rip; tap → top
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SEEL Target Texts

Tap, Slap, Flap

Tap the word "map."
Tap the word "lap."
Slap the word "strap."
Slap the word "nap."
Flap the word "zap."
Flap the word "yap."
Read More



SEEL lessons align with Common Core Standards. Please see the standards page for the code(s) associated with this lesson.