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What is it?

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When a person has at least two seizures that aren’t a result of trauma, infection, fever, or chemical change, they are considered to have epilepsy. Epilepsy is a medical condition that triggers seizures that affect diverse mental and physical functions. When a group of nerve cells in the brain signal unusually, which may for a short period of time alter a person’s consciousness, movements, or actions, it is called a seizure. 65 million people worldwide are affected by Epilepsy. It is most commonly seen among the very young and the very old, but it can be developed at any age. It is more common than autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease combined. Although there isn’t a cure for epilepsy, there is medication that can help control seizure activity, and for most people taking epilepsy medication, the neurological dysfunction is stabilized. Although it is uncommon (1 in 1,000), those with epilepsy are at risk of Sudden Unexpected and Unexplained Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP), a term used when a person with epilepsy dies without an evident cause.

Causes of Epilepsy

Abnormality in brain wiring, an imbalance of neurotransmitters, or a combination of these factors might allow epilepsy to develop. Furthermore, causes of epilepsy may include head injuries, brain tumors, lead poisoning, certain genetic diseases and some infectious diseases. There is also an increasing occurrence of epilepsy as a result of strokes, brain tumors, and Alzheimer's Disease among the elderly. Many soldiers who suffered a traumatic brain injury in the field may have epilepsy as a long-term consequence. However, the cause of epilepsy is still unknown in more than half the patients with epilepsy.

Signs of Epilepsy

As stated above, when a person has two or more seizures without an apparent cause, they are considered to have epilepsy. Epilepsy only has one visible symptom, recurrent seizures that are a result of too much electrical activity in a group of nerve cells.

Epilepsy in the Classroom

Isolation from other students, low self-esteem and being considerably behind peers in basic educational skills such as reading, language, and arithmetic, may be problems faced by children who have seizures. Appropriate management by teachers and the school nurse, along with an informed school staff can overcome or avoid many of these problems.

First Aid has these first aid steps:

school bus with stop sign

For Convulsive Seizure

  • Don't panic! You can help.
    Convulsive seizures look scary. And no matter how many times you see one, they will always be startling. But whoever you are, you can do lots to help. So take a deep breath, and follow these simple steps.
  • Time it. Longer than 5 minutes, call an ambulance.
    Most seizures are usually over in two or three minutes, but if it does go on longer than 5 minutes, get an ambulance right away. When you see a seizure, check the time, because to the person watching, it might seem like a seizure goes on for ages when it's really only been a couple of minutes.
  • Explain what is going on. Ask to be given space.
    When a seizure happens, people may not know what is going on and may crowd around to watch. Explain to people that the person is having a seizure and that it will be over soon. Ask everyone to stay back and allow some space so that when the person having the seizure wakes up they won't feel overwhelmed by strangers staring down from all around.
  • Cushion head and neck with something soft.
    Place something soft under a person's head and neck during a convulsive seizure to prevent head injury. You could use anything that you might have on hand, such as a pillow or rolled up jacket.
  • Roll the person to their side to prevent choking.
    Sometimes during a seizure a person may throw up or drool a lot. To prevent choking, simply roll the person on their side. That way, anything in the mouth will come out instead of blocking off the throat and airway.
  • Clear the area of dangers.
    When a person has a convulsive seizure, their body, arms and legs will be shaking. To prevent them from hitting something nearby, move things out of the way that may pose a danger.
  • Do NOT put anything in the mouth.
    There is an old myth that you should put something in a person's mouth during a seizure to keep them from swallowing their tongue. This is NOT TRUE and can be dangerous. It can accidentally cause the person to gag, break teeth or bite their tongue or cheeks.
  • Do NOT restrain.
    You cannot stop a seizure by holding or shaking a person. If you try to restrain the person, their whole body will still be jerking and shaking. As a result, you could injure them, or you could accidentally get hit.
  • Speak gently. Be kind during and after the seizure.
    After a seizure the person will be groggy and disoriented. By talking kindly throughout the seizure and after, not only will you offer comfort to the person, but you will calm yourself and others around you at the same time.

For Non-Convulsive Seizure

  • Don't panic! You can help.
    No matter if you are young or old, you can help someone having a seizure. The first aid is simple, and in most cases involves making sure the person is safe and comfortable.
  • Time it. Longer than 5 minutes, call an ambulance.
    This is the general rule of thumb for seizures. The longer a seizure goes on, the greater the chance it may need medical intervention to stop it. Check out the section on calling an ambulance to see when you should call for help.
  • Explain what is happening.
    Non-convulsive seizures can be sneaky and may look very unusual or frightening. If you spot someone having a non-convulsive seizure, let others know, so that they will understand and not be scared or confused.
  • Clear the area of dangers.
    Move things that the person having the seizure may hit or stumble over that could be dangerous. Remember, the person having this type of seizure will not have any real awareness of their surroundings, so they need your help.
  • Gently guide and protect from hazards.
    Using a light touch, guide the person carefully away from other dangers like stairs or a busy street. Make note of how the seizure looks, they may want to know after it's over.
  • Do NOT restrain.
    People who have seizures are normally not aggressive in any way. But if restrained or held, they may forcefully try to get away because they have no understanding of what is happening or why. So for everyone's safety, never ever restrain a person having a seizure.
  • Speak gently. Be kind during and after the seizure.
    Seizures are no fun to have, and no one would ever choose them. But you can make things much better and far more tolerable just by talking nicely and reassuring the person that everything is ok and that you are there to help. After all, it may be you needing that same help from someone else someday.
  • If a non-convulsive seizure becomes convulsive...
    Follow the guidelines for convulsive seizures Sometimes non-convulsive seizures can progress into convulsive seizures. This may happen very quickly. If it does happen, just switch to the first aid for the convulsive type of seizures as outlined [above].

References and websites on this subject

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